Tuesday, January 10, 2023

In with the New!

     I am looking forward to a bang up 2023 and I am excited about my ongoing projects. In 2022 I co-founded a nonprofit organization, Expanding Frontiers Research, which is dedicated to conducting and publishing original research. We also have interest in a few other activities with lots of potential for promising outcomes. I hope you've been looking around the website and checking it out.

The EFR blog, for instance, has posts on topics ranging from critical thinking to material obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. We also executed an investigation on PhenomeCon and financial incentives cast members of The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch have in maintaining unverified paranormal claims. I am proud of the work done to obtain material through public records requests, interviews conducted, and subsequent information provided freely to the public. 

I am equally proud of co-founder Erica Lukes's substantial contributions, which include, among other things, her brand new show, Expanding Frontiers. Guests so far have included science journalist Sarah Scoles, journalist and activist Heidi Beedle, and next up is controversial and popular author Robert Guffey. You can follow along and access the shows on the EFR video page, which will also be hosting video content we produce in addition to the Expanding Frontiers show.  

Additional video content so far includes Barry Greenwood sharing his insights on archiving historic material. Barry is a member of the EFR Board of Directors and a longtime writer, researcher, and archivist.

You might also find of interest a video posted in which I discuss FOIA basics. It includes a few tips, as well as specific examples of FOIA hauls. The documents referenced in the video are provided for viewing and downloading on the same page.

If you find our work of value and you are in a position to do so, please consider making a tax-deductible donation through one of the secure donation buttons found on the EFR website. Your contributions support our FOIA work, archiving efforts, website maintenance, video production, and similar operating costs. Thank you.

I am very pleased with the progress and direction of Expanding Frontiers Research! We are excited about 2023. Stay tuned for lots more, and we hope to see you at expandingfrontiersresearch.org

Thursday, October 20, 2022

Investigation of Skinwalker Claims Leads to Uintah County Offices

    The beginning of the latest article at Expanding Frontiers Research, titled 'Uintah County Paid Tens of Thousands to PhenomeCon Speakers':

    Financial records obtained from Uintah County indicate it spent over $133,000 on the 2022 PhenomeCon while raising about $124,000 in revenue, compiling a reported debt of some $9,000 for sponsoring the paranormal-themed conference. The inaugural 2021 PhenomeCon likewise tallied over $74,000 in payouts while collecting about $59,000 in revenue, finishing some $15,000 in the hole. Expenses for the two conferences, confirmed to be sponsored by Uintah County, include tens of thousands of dollars in payments to dubious speakers and catered “VIP” meals in which unsupported rumors were spread of dangerous paranormal phenomena. Payouts also include workshops promoting such topics as Remote Viewing and payments for rental car reimbursements. During the 2022 PhenomeCon, payments issued for speaking engagements, consultation services, and appearances at events totaled over $60,000, while hotel chains were paid in excess of $10,000, according to the financial reports.

Expanding Frontiers Research (EFR) obtained the information through public records requests submitted to the Uintah County offices of the Clerk-Auditor and Travel and Tourism. The requests were submitted as part of a joint effort between this writer and EFR Director Erica Lukes, who contributed substantial research to this article.

Monday, October 3, 2022

UFO Trail Projects

    Lots of interesting projects have been coming to fruition around UFO Trail headquarters! If you haven't yet heard, I helped launch Expanding Frontiers Research (EFR), a Utah-based 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation. We're dedicated to sharing information and resources that most effectively embody best research practices. We also envision expanding on the archive work already undertaken by Erica Lukes and Barry Greenwood. 

You can view the EFR website and have a look around. Be sure and check out the blog as well, where I'm adding material, including the latest post, FBI Docs Offer Clues on NICAP President, Right-Wing Extremism. It explores declassified FBI material that offers further insight into Jack Acuff and his contacts. 

You might also be interested in a recent UFO Classified episode in which Erica graciously provided Emma Woods and me a venue to explore Emma's history. For those of you not entirely familiar, the case involved a number of unethical actions committed on the part of David Jacobs. We listened to actual recordings of audio clips made during long distance telephone hypnosis sessions conducted by Jacobs. Be advised the subject matter is mature and disturbing at times. It is brave of Emma to continue to address and speak out on the circumstances. The episode of UFO Classified is shown below.

Thanks for your continued interest in The UFO Trail and my projects! I look forward to lots more intriguing circumstances to explore.

Saturday, September 17, 2022

CIA Responds to FOIA Request on Jack Acuff

John "Jack" Acuff
     A Freedom of Information Act request submitted to the CIA on John L. "Jack" Acuff, Jr., the man instated as president of NICAP in 1970, received a September 9 response in which the spy network would neither confirm nor deny the existence of records that would reveal an unacknowledged or classified association with Acuff. Known as a "Glomar response," the Agency explained that the admission of the existence or nonexistence of such records is a fact that is exempt under the FOIA.

The Agency did, however, provide copies of two previously released documents that reference Acuff. The first is an intriguing, two-page, unattributed profile of NICAP as cited and explored in Wayward Sons. The second is a 24-page Robert J. Durant essay, Will the Real Scott Jones Please Stand Up?. The 1990s Durant work, widely known among researchers familiar with the latter 20th century saucers and spooks scene, apparently found its way into possession of the CIA for what may be a variety of possible reasons and came to be archived on its website.

Jack Acuff took charge of the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the wake of the removal of Donald Keyhoe as director. Staffer Stuart Nixon was given Keyhoe's former position in what became known as the Acuff-Nixon era of the UFO organization. Speculation and accusations of hidden intelligence community agendas involving NICAP echoed throughout the UFO subculture and continue to be popularly accepted today among those familiar with the circumstances.

The two-page document carries the heading, "National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP)," and appears to possibly be a draft of a memo or report. The name of an author is not included and the specific purpose of the document is not clear, although it is apparent that NICAP structure and operating methods were the focus of the work. It places Nixon as director and Acuff on the Editorial Review Board, suggesting the date of the piece was the early 1970s. The two pages were apparently originally approved for release by the CIA in 2010.

The document goes on to break down the education and scientific backgrounds of select NICAP volunteers. "All investigators carry credentials identifying them as investigators for NICAP," the author informs the unknown intended audience.

From the document:

Will the Real Scott Jones Please Stand Up? takes readers through the shenanigans and misadventures of intelligence professional Cecil B. "Scott" Jones and a surrounding cast of dubious characters. Many of them have been explored on this blog, including Jones himself, who I interviewed by email in 2012.  

Acuff makes an appearance in the essay when author Durant quotes the work of Fawcett and Greenwood (Clear Intent). They explained how prior to serving as president of NICAP, Acuff "was the head of the Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers (SPSE), a frequent target of Russian spying attempts and a group that had many members involved in Defense Department intelligence units, including the CIA."

Acuff was indeed but one NICAP officer of many with significant and direct ties to intelligence agencies. Stuart Nixon left NICAP in 1974, which was the same year Sen. Barry Goldwater joined the Board of Directors. Goldwater went on to chair both the Senate Armed Services Committee and Senate Intelligence Committee.

In 1978, Acuff now-infamously sold the NICAP mailing list to a Toronto-based Nazi group. Twice. The purchaser, Ernst Zundel, aka Christoff Freidrich, was reportedly none too pleased because the list included 8,000 names of people who were physically dead (see pp1-3).  

The office of Goldwater was likewise not thrilled with the turn of events, at least due to the potential publicity problems, but relations between Acuff and the Senator apparently did not entirely go south. Although Acuff was replaced at president by Harry Cooper in 1978, he did not depart NICAP for good until 1982. This happened after he secured a four-digit cash settlement from the org for what at least one member reportedly described as holding its files ransom (see p14).

In a letter dated January 29, 1982 and shown below, Acuff notified Goldwater he was leaving the Board (see p21). Acuff thanked the Senator for the help he and his staff gave him. 


Tuesday, August 9, 2022

Responsive Records on 'Coast to Coast' Relevant to Pending Law Enforcement Proceedings: FBI

     Material responsive to a FOIA request on Coast to Coast AM is located in an investigative file, an August 2 FBI response to the request stated. The Bureau added the responsive records are law enforcement records. 

"[T]here is a pending or prospective law enforcement proceeding relevant to these responsive records," the Bureau continued in the response, "and release of the information could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings. Therefore, your request is being administratively closed."

The FOIA request sought records cross-referencing or pertaining to Coast to Coast AM, a late-night fringe talk show that typically explores paranormal topics and conspiracy theories. The request was submitted at the suggestion of researcher, archivist, and host of UFO Classified, Erica Lukes.

From the FBI response:

Coast to Coast is no stranger to controversy, hosted from 1988-2000 by the late Art Bell. It was during Bell's time at the mic that such sagas as Heaven's Gate, Art's Parts, and the Area 51 Caller were broadcast to millions of listeners. 

C2C's George Noory
In more recent years, Coast to Coast host George Noory increasingly provided a platform to controversial rightwing figures and their talking points. His counterpart George Knapp uncritically promoted Skinwalker Ranch lore and defended sensational tales told by defense officials claiming knowledge of paranormal activity and nonhuman intelligences.

It should be noted the responsive records may be nothing more than mentions of Coast to Coast, such as references to guests appearing on the show, or similar asides. The significance of the records, acknowledged by the FBI to exist, cannot be established without examining the material.

In its August 2 FOIA response, the FBI cited Exemption (b)(7)(a) for withholding the responsive records. The exemption states records compiled for law enforcement purposes are exempt from disclosure under the FOIA, but only to the extent producing the records could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings. 

An appeal was therefore submitted, requesting further review of the responsive records to ensure they are not part of a former investigation, or a once prospective investigation that is at this point not reasonably expected to proceed. Under such circumstances, as compared to an active investigation, the records may be subject to release. 

The appeal additionally presented for consideration that Coast to Coast AM attracts 2.75 million listeners per week across some 600 American radio stations plus international affiliates. The records therefore represent a potentially significant public interest. The appeal is in process as of this writing.

In other developments, the FBI executed a search warrant Monday at the Mar-A-Lago home of former President Donald Trump. The FBI reportedly spent the majority of the day at the location conducting a search related to the National Archives. National security analysts suspect the raid to be related to classified records Trump took with him from Washington to Florida after losing his 2020 re-election bid. More specifically, what he was doing with the information contained in those classified records may be more at issue than their unlawful removal. 

Saturday, July 23, 2022

Working the FOIA

    Earlier this year I submitted a FOIA request to the FBI for all records cross-referencing or pertaining to Ira Samuel Einhorn. The late Einhorn, dubbed the "Unicorn Killer," was convicted of the murder of his former girlfriend Holly Maddux. It is a tragic and somewhat complex saga that winds through the environmental activist community and an international trail of evading authorities.

The infamous Einhorn
Maddux disappeared in 1977 during a trip to gather her belongings from an apartment she and Einhorn previously shared in Philadelphia. A year and a half later her remains were found in a trunk in his closet. Einhorn fled to Europe and was assisted by supporters who he convinced of his innocence. He was not arrested until 1997 in France, and even then the extradition process proved complicated. 

Einhorn was eventually convicted in 2002, but not before taking the witness stand in his own defense and claiming the CIA killed Maddux. He asserted he was set up because he knew too much about the Agency's military paranormal research. The case resulted in researchers such as Mark Pilkington and Greg Bishop showing interest over the years. 

Einhorn died of reportedly natural causes in a Pennsylvania prison in 2020. For those wondering, he was called the Unicorn Killer because "Einhorn" apparently translates to "unicorn" in German.

So a few months ago some friends were discussing the case and I offered to submit a FOIA request to the FBI. The Bureau responded in May with 356 pages of records

However, the response indicated the Bureau was simply providing records which were previously offered in response to other requesters:

This means a thorough search was not actually conducted, but the request was filled by providing the material already offered in response to the same or similar requests. As once pointed out by John Greenewald, an effective means of having an additional search conducted is to promptly respond with a request for all records not included in the release.

I realize this sounds crazy. A FOIA request gets submitted for all records on XYZ, the agency responds, then the requester asks for all the records not included in all the XYZ records. Like, no, really, all the records. But this technique results in additional documents a rather surprising amount of the time. While it is indeed a little crazy, it makes a bit more sense when understood from the perspective the initial response was pretty much nothing more than giving the requester what was already provided to previous requesters.

In this specific instance, FBI notified me July 19 of an additional 4,473 pages of potentially responsive records not included in the initial response to my request:

A large number of additional documents does not always prove to be as interesting as it initially seems. For instance, sometimes 356 pages of XYZ may be stored in a much larger folder containing thousands of pages pertaining to similar cases as XYZ, perhaps from the same era or general topic. Nonetheless, one might indeed prefer to be made aware of such records and browse the material for them self. 

The quoted cost of a reproduction of the roughly 4,500 pages is $130 which may be delivered in pdf in nine monthly increments of about 500 pages each. I will probably order the material and post it as I periodically receive it.

In related FOIA news, I received 47 pages of previously released FBI records on George Hunter White in April. White was a Federal Bureau of Narcotics agent who parlayed his career underperformance into becoming a member of the MKULTRA crew. He ran houses of ill repute for the CIA where hookers dosed unsuspecting Johns in the name of national security and science. 

According to John Marks, the overindulging White once had a fender bender in the neighborhood of a CIA-sponsored brothel, resulting in the Agency paying cash for damages to the other driver in an effort to protect the cover of Operation Climax. He reportedly once used a gun to shoot his initials in the ceiling of a New Orleans hotel room. He's also the guy that released hallucinogenic chemicals on a New York subway for the Agency you may have heard about. Real charmer, this guy. 

In response to my request for all records not included in the initial response, FBI replied July 20 that additional responsive records were transferred to the National Archives:

I will post from my Twitter account as I learn more about the number of pages involved and as I obtain the files. NARA will advise of the circumstances in response to a request for the material.

As I discussed in WAYWARD SONS: NICAP and the IC, the FBI may offer insights into CIA personnel and activities that are not always accessible through the Agency. Director Hoover had his nose in virtually everything, and FBI files may reflect espionage investigations, background checks for security clearance, and any number of circumstances which provide more material than released by CIA.

Along those lines, readers of WAYWARD SONS will recall the significance of the Office of Policy Coordination, a 1948-1952 front for the CIA and State Department. From the book:


    In 1949 the OPC had a total of 302 personnel. By 1952 it had 2,812 with an additional 3,142 overseas contract personnel. The 1949 OPC budget was $4.7 million. Just three years later, in 1952, it was $82 million. By the time of its merge with the Office of Special Operations, OPC activities included worldwide covert missions conducted out of some 47 overseas stations. 

The previously cited 1973 CIA intelligence study and its assertion the Clandestine Services stepped up the pace thereafter could certainly be interpreted as significant, if not outright mind boggling. The study references a CIA-composed history of the OPC made up of five volumes, consisting of 722 pages plus three appendices and eleven attachments (To the best of my knowledge, the five-volume OPC history has not yet been released, although a partially redacted version of its introduction is contained in the referenced 1973 CIA Studies in Intelligence).

The OPC originally operated on the watch of Director of Central Intelligence Roscoe Hillenkoetter. Col. Joseph Bryan III was recruited and ran a psy warfare subdivision consisting of such notable characters as E. Howard Hunt. Both Hillenkoetter and Bryan were destined to play influential roles on the board of directors of the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena.

Curiously, Hillenkoetter's CIA successor, DCI Walter Bedell Smith, expressed interest in the use of the UFO topic as a psy warfare tool. He wanted to know "what use could be made of the UFO phenomenon in connection with US psychological warfare efforts," according to the CIA itself. In 1950, DCI Smith took complete control of the Office of Policy Coordination from the State Department. Surrounding circumstances and the cast of characters are explored at length in WAYWARD SONS.

On July 21 the FBI responded to a 2021 FOIA request on the Office of Policy Coordination. All responsive material was withheld in full:

The cited exemptions involve privacy and security issues. I am in the process of appealing the FBI determination to withhold the material, most, if not all, of which is now over 70 years old.

I recommend those interested in studying the FOIA process (and particularly obtaining related resources) follow Beth Bourdon, a fulltime attorney and parttime FOIA activist. She maintains a Patreon which has proven valuable in furthering my understandings of FOIA appeals as well as related steps of effectively navigating the entire process.

Sunday, July 10, 2022

Skinwalker Transparency and Burden of Proof

    The Uintah County Sheriff's Office (UCSO) issued a response to a records request that it shows no record or contact at the property popularly known as Skinwalker Ranch. Records are no longer kept on file that date earlier than 2007, the UCSO added in its response dated July 7. The request specifically sought all records cross-referencing or pertaining to Skinwalker Ranch, Sherman Ranch, Myers Ranch and/or the physical address of the property, which was provided in the request, with a date range of 1983 to present.

The inquiry resulted from a June Twitter exchange with Brandon Fugal, in which the current ranch owner and television personality alluded to law enforcement responses to the property reportedly taking place during the 1980s. Following requests for citations, Fugal provided a link to an interview of an apparent former Uintah County Deputy Sheriff, Kris Porritt. I indicated I was interested in original law enforcement reports resulting from any such police responses, as compared to witness testimony. Fugal then provided me with the contact info of an associate he suggested I contact for further inquiry. 

I subsequently had a series of email exchanges with the individual, who initially offered to speak by phone. I advised that I may not require that much of their time and attention, further explaining I was seeking either law enforcement records or information to assist me in submitting a request for such records. They clarified they do not have any police reports. 

At my request, Fugal's associate helpfully provided additional information that would potentially support an effective records inquiry. It was after my email exchange with them that the request was submitted to the Uintah County Sheriff's Office. The person asked me to inform them of results, to which I agreed.

Saturday I emailed the individual a copy of the response from the UCSO and offered them an opportunity to comment for this blogpost. They responded that they respectfully do not wish to comment, nor do they give consent to use their name or any information they shared regarding the ranch. I opt to honor their request, curious as the circumstances may be. 

The irony of the turn of events is rather striking, given Fugal's consistent claims of transparency, combined with the fact it was he who recommended in the first place I consult his associate concerning my search for law enforcement records. In the event you're wondering, the information shared with me was not shockingly damning by any means, but suffice it to say neither did it strongly support urban legends associated with police calls to Skinwalker Ranch. 

It was after I provided both Fugal and his associate the UCSO response, and after I informed Fugal of aspects of the email exchange with his associate (in order to offer Fugal an opportunity to comment on the specific circumstances), that the individual - who initially offered to speak by phone - advised me of their request to neither be named nor quoted. We can only speculate exactly how that evolved.

Offered an opportunity to address the circumstances, Fugal responded in a long message that he spoke to his associate and indicated they are concerned I have a "clear negative bias." According to Fugal, they therefore do not want their name associated with an attempt to disparage witnesses. Fugal suggested he applauds what I do "relative to calling out people who are exploiting the phenomenon or spreading disinformation and lies," yet alternatively went on to state I give voice to people who hide behind a cloak of hypocritical skepticism or self-righteous critical thinking. Some, he stated, are clearly dishonest. He also stated he hopes I am honest and not a disinformation agent.

Fugal was obviously much less inhibited about commenting than the person who will remain nameless who he initially recommended I hit up for info. Directing our attention back to his original statements about law enforcement records, Fugal stated the lack of corroborating records "doesn't make the fact that [Porritt] went on record regarding the multiple events that occurred and his relationship with Ken Myers any less real or true. For instance, I have closed billions of dollars of transactions going back to 1991, but in countless cases couldn't give you the exact dates of groundbreaking events, transactions closing or key meetings with leaders structuring some of the most important business deals in the Intermountain West. My testimony and track record stands."

I'll let the reader decide the tenability of the argument. Fugal further asserted they have interviewed other law enforcement professionals who "recall responding to incidents in the area" that predate the Sherman and Bigelow era.

"Furthermore," Fugal continued, "we have an interview with a respected professional who had a firsthand experience coming on to the ranch in 1984, who did provide exact dates, who happened upon a freshly surgically dissected cow in the same area on the property that other strange incidents have occurred in the field just south of Homestead 1." 

The apparent respected professional and an accompanying friend were so disturbed, Fugal continued, they promptly reported the circumstances to law enforcement. Fugal hopes to obtain permission to release the account to the public, along with what he described as additional witness testimony, seemingly either ignoring or oblivious to the relative lack of value such material has to a more discerning research community not under the ether of Skinwalker lore. 

Similarly, Fugal explained how a member of his security detail interviewed many retired officers who attest to strange and disturbing activity. Their accounts go back many decades, he contends.

"Since I know you have a tendency to give weight and voice to the criticism of people with no credibility or credentials, I encourage you to continue to interact with people who actually know what they are talking about. My professional track record and history is unimpeachable, as is the case with my principal investigator/physicist, ranch manager, law enforcement & superintendent."

Fugal's remark about me giving a voice to criticism may be related to my willingness to explore the arguments of those which include James Carrion. Fugal has previously expressed disappointment to me specifically about my interest in Carrion's perspectives. I identify Carrion's criticism of the Skinwalker saga and television series as worthy of consideration, particularly in the context of Fugal's persistent suggestions the show portrays legitimate scientific study. Related posts may be found at Carrion's blog in addition to the example linked above.  

What would Fugal say to people who might feel he is attempting to stack the deck by suggesting he has documentation of law enforcement responses while no actual records of such responses, or what was originally recorded in them, is available?

"Transcribed interviews & testimony from former law enforcement stating they responded to incidents on the ranch in the mid-1980s constitutes documentation. We have verified that the people involved and cited were indeed acting in that capacity during that timeframe and have no reason to doubt their testimony or credibility. Although you were unable to obtain the actual records from the Sheriff’s office from that time period, you cannot say that the events did not occur."

Fugal directly denied he is trying to stack the deck, continuing, "My own firsthand experience (with multiple witnesses) coupled with countless events with data involving 3rd party experts has proven (so far) there is no conventional, prosaic explanation for past & present extraordinary events at Skinwalker Ranch. I respectfully request that you take a balanced view and appreciate you giving me the opportunity to respond & address your questions."

    There are a number of people in addition to James Carrion who challenge several aspects of Brandon Fugal's stated positions, and one of those people is Erica Lukes. The outspoken host of UFO Classified understands the winding Skinwalker saga and personally knows the players about as well as anybody who rolls the UFO dice.  

"When bold claims are made about a particular location having an excessive number of paranormal phenomena, the expectation for me is that they are not just narrative tall tales but are well-documented, testable events," Lukes responded. "Can the anomalous nature of these events be demonstrated beyond 'they came without warning and left without warning' that we always seem to get in such reporting? 

"If they can’t rise above the usual level of narrative story-telling, there is a presumption that errors can be introduced into the events. After all, the usual method of relating the details is done verbally from the mouths of human beings, a notoriously flawed means of recording transient events. It’s a mistake to accept verbal testimony at face value without extensive testing of that information by means of questions designed to assess the accuracy and consistency of the related information."

Some people don't see the issue as a matter of verifying claims, but suggest those who do not unquestioningly embrace the stories must be calling the supporters of those stories frauds. What would she say to them?

"No, not frauds, at least initially," Lukes explained. "Fraud comes from deliberate intent to deceive. Supporters of the claims can simply be accepting bad information by not exercising due diligence at considering all the more possible mundane explanations before opting towards the unusual, sensational ones."

What does Lukes think is most important for people to keep in mind when considering claims associated with the ranch?

"It's critical to understand that as with any extraordinary assertions, the burden of proof is on those making the assertions and not on those raising questions about them. That is real science."


    The lack of significant documentation of sensational Skinwalker claims continues to haunt the saga worse than a hitchhiking bipedal wolf. While a valid argument can be made that a lack of UCSO records does not completely negate the testimony of Porritt, the fact remains law enforcement visits to the ranch cannot be verified. More importantly, the extent anyone may have originally perceived the events as extraordinary cannot be verified. We are unable to examine descriptions of events and the interpretations of those involved as may have been entered into original police reports. This does not allow us to compare those reports to the possibly dramatic narrations recorded decades later for an entertainment-based television show. It seems the UFO subculture indeed often needs to be reminded the burden of proof is on the claimant.

As observable in various internet spaces, a concerning aspect of the online Skinwalker fan base and cast is their tendency to sensationalize until checked. They then encourage more patience for ongoing investigations, as if they have not been suggesting all along a supernatural presence is a foregone conclusion. They are promoting conclusions; many of them only deny it and urge suspension of judgment when called on it. 

Investigations, by definition, must include systematic examination. That is particularly the case if framed as scientific activity. 

One might get the idea the faithful would never tap the brakes if their claims went entirely unchallenged. When challenged, a typical response is to act as if a request for proportionate evidence is unreasonable, as if anything less than extending limitless patience and unquestioning belief is a disrespectful personal attack. All of this without so much as forming a hypothesis, identifying a sustained research objective, or proposing how progress will be measured. We're in for a long wait under such conditions.