Thursday, August 10, 2017

NSA Fully Releases 'UFOs and the IC Blind Spot' Doc Following FOIA Request

National Security Agency headquarters, 
Fort Meade, MD
The NSA has released in full the document UFOs and the Intelligence Community Blind Spot to Surprise or Deceptive Data, following an FOIA request to review redacted sections for further declassification. In a letter dated July 17, 2017, the Agency responded that the previously partially published document was processed as a Mandatory Declassification Review and subsequently released. The letter and accompanying file may be viewed and downloaded at the link above.

We first explored the doc, composed at some point prior to 1979 by an unnamed author, here at The UFO Trail in the January blog post, NSA UFO Docs. Two redacted sections of the seven-page file were noted. The first section provided an example of how human response to perceived unusual phenomena can be detrimental, particularly from a military perspective. Images below show previously redacted pages on the left, with the now fully disclosed pages on the right.


Offering an example of detrimental responses, the author explained how a USAF technician "was engaged in first level traffic analysis and intercept processing against Soviet Bloc countries," when one of the countries began to report an unusual radar track. It was described as "a high flying fast moving object with an erratic flight pattern." Although identified as occasionally moving against the wind, the Bloc "began reporting the object as a balloon." 

"The next Bloc nation picked up the object and continued the designation of balloon despite the erratic flight pattern, high speed, and against the wind maneuvers," the author continued.

It was further explained that the airman noted a variety of emotional reactions taking place among personnel within the American processing facility. Such reactions included "everyone was more edgy and silent than usual," as well as "aggressive and distracted responses" to requests for clarification of some of the data. 

The author concluded human flaws leave us blinded to unusual or surprising material. Some people, however, it was suggested, "are less affected by strange phenomena than others, though still frightened by it, they remain capable of reporting it with a fair degree of objectivity." 

The second redacted section was the author's recommendations to effectively address such challenges, which included training intelligence analysts "to be able to deal with unusual phenomena." It was also suggested:

Select a group of analysts and evaluators who have the natural capability to see unusual phenomena and be able to process it. Form these analysts into a special surprise alert team responsible directly to the JCS and the highest levels of the intelligence community and intensively train them further in the art of processing surprise material.

Further recommendations included providing intensive training to high level military officers responsible for strategic decisions. Such training included "the objective handling and analysis of surprise material."

The document offers some intriguing points for consideration. Among them is the author's interest in Air Force personnel reactions to surprise data. Also noteworthy, in my opinion, is the author's seemingly at times uncritical interpretations of reported UFO phenomena and ways to conduct investigation.

For instance, an event can be "so shockingly unusual," the author reports, it "is buried in the unconscious of the person where it is only accessible to hypnosis" or other carefully conducted modes of communication. Such views show how deeper, more accurate understandings of the unreliability of hypnosis as a memory retrieval tool have evolved in the scientific community and presumably among NSA assets. We periodically see similar outdated views reflected in IC Cold War era docs concerning other UFO and paranormal topics, as well. 

Related dynamics and NSA historic willingness to explore the fringe were considered in a March blog post titled, NSA Interest in the Paranormal. In a manner of speaking, the Gulf Breeze Six episode - whatever it may have ultimately involved - was not an anomaly as much a part of the natural progression of topics explored and activities regularly conducted by the Agency. That doesn't necessarily make it any less interesting, but should be clearly understood as the context is relevant: NSA and other agencies, such as DARPA and CIA, are as historically involved in exploring the fringe as debunking it, if not more so. That creates many potential options for the IC from one era and project to the next, as well as lines of research for those of us following along.

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Paper UFOs

"[UFOs] were out of my reach of knowledge. I found the subject fascinating, as do a lot of people... That something is there, and that people see something, is unquestioned. I think, for me, it's best to leave it like that."
Did the CIA leave it like that?
"I assume not, no."
- Statements attributed to the late Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, former CIA Chief of Technical Services Staff, in 1997, as quoted by Hank Albarelli, Jr., A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA's Secret Cold War Experiments

In a recent blog post we explored a declassified NSA file containing a document that suggested a 1952 story of a crashed UFO was fabricated by the intelligence community. The saucer tale in question involved a disk supposedly recovered from the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen.

It might be noteworthy the story was apparently floated just five years after the Roswell Daily Record published an article about a retrieved flying saucer. The newspaper got the 1947 scoop compliments of a now infamous press release issued from the intelligence office of the 509th Bomb Group of the Eighth Air Force at Roswell Army Air Field. The press release didn't age well, to say the least, and exactly why that's the case continues to be the subject of intense study.

Guy Malone and Nick Redfern are among the many researchers who have taken deep dives into the topic, and suffice it to say their findings do not support extraterrestrial origins for the incident. Malone and Redfern recently made presentations at Roswell which will soon be available. Nick published his research in his new book, The Roswell UFO Conspiracy: Exposing a Shocking and Sinister Secret. I find their work on the topic interesting and worthy of consideration from several perspectives.

Further recommended is the work of James Carrion on the 1946-47 UFO scene. See Carrion's blog, Anachronism, where you may view relevant posts and download his book of the same name for free. 

Just two years after the Spitsbergen fiascothe CIA suggested to operatives in Guatemala via a 1954 telegram to consider fabricating a story about flying saucers as an option to distract public attention from Agency involvement in a coup. This was reported in a 2003 New York Times article somewhat amusingly titled, The C.I.A.'s Cover Has Been Blown? Just Make Up Something About U.F.O.'s. The original incidents notably took place during a time in history in which the Agency was up to its neck in the evolution of projects concerning behavior modification, or mind control. Operations such as Bluebird and Artichoke led to MKULTRA, formally run from 1953 to 1964.

During a recent discussion with Dr. Michael Heiser and his Peeranormal team, we considered several aspects of the UFO and intelligence communities. Among other items, we discussed how it stands to reason the IC would note the ways chains of events unfold, whether or not by design, and implement lessons learned at later dates as advantageous. 

Sidney Gottlieb and attorney, 1977
Declassified MKULTRA Subproject 84 documents, for example, describe a rigorous study of hypnosis which included long term investigation of trance phenomena. According to CIA personnel, this involved obtaining observational data compiled on attendees at Pentecostal churches. Such intelligence gathering should not be considered particularly out of the ordinary, and one could reasonably assume other communities of interest might receive similar scrutiny.

We may very well be witnessing the evolution of successfully engineered operations in the manners the UFO topic is exploited from one era to the next. Purposes and objectives would change from one instance to another, but a byproduct, if not an objective in some circumstances, should be clear: Researchers may become distracted from actuality while chasing entirely fabricated stories. Not only does this appear to apply with the general subject of UFOs and alleged aliens, but even in the more specific uses of memes of so-called crashed flying saucers, as may have arisen between the Roswell event of 1947 and the Spitsbergen story of 1952. In this post we will explore such circumstances. 

Please allow me to qualify and emphasize I am not suggesting there is necessarily nothing unusual of interest, or what we might term "paranormal," to be explored within the UFO subject. If there is, it's practically a different topic. I am suggesting the manners the overall subject has been manipulated and misrepresented by the IC, charlatans, and opportunists have deeply distorted public perception of the circumstances. I feel that needs to be more thoroughly understood than is currently the case. Incidents such as Roswell may very well have virtually nothing whatsoever to do with what any random member of the UFO community may have seen in the sky one distant yet memorable evening while traveling along a lonely highway. Unfortunately, incorrect information may be the primary influence in how people interpret those events.

Market Research? 
According to a Technical Report prepared by the Air Force’s flying saucer study, Project Grudge, in August 1949: "Upon eliminating several additional incidents due to vagueness and duplication, there remain 228 incidents, which are considered in this report. Thirty of these could not be explained, because there was found to be insufficient evidence on which to base a conclusion." Arguably, however, the most important and intriguing entry in the document appears in the Recommendations section. It’s one that many UFO researchers have not appreciated the significance of. It states: "That Psychological Warfare Division and other governmental agencies interested in psychological warfare be informed of the results of this study."
- Nick Redfern, The Aztec UFO and Psy-Ops

The 1948 Aztec, NM, alleged saucer crash has been thoroughly discredited by multiple researchers. Among them are Nick Redfern and Robert Sheaffer. The tale largely grew out of the statements of Silas Mason Newton, an individual, as Sheaffer reported, the FBI identified as a con man - and who was convicted of fraud.

Karl T. Pflock
Redfern is among those who cite the intriguing claims of the late Karl T. Pflock, a former CIA officer and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense turned UFO researcher. Pflock claimed to have obtained knowledge in 1998 that Air Force intelligence was monitoring Newton back in the day, paid him a visit, and with complete understanding his crashed saucer story was entirely false, encouraged him to keep telling it.

Mark Pilkington offers further info of interest in his book, Mirage Men: An Adventure into Paranoia, Espionage, Psychological Warfare, and UFOs. The author described a 1950 lecture at the University of Denver in which 90 science students were initially asked to attend a presentation on flying saucers. News of the event spread and the hall was filled by the time an anonymous speaker explained flying saucers were not only real, but some had been obtained by the U.S. Air Force. This included mention of one purportedly retrieved from Aztec. 

"In what sounds more like a market research experiment than an academic lecture," Pilkington wrote, attendees were asked after the presentation whether they believed the unnamed speaker. A reported 60 percent responded affirmatively, and some were later questioned by Air Force intelligence officers. Follow-up questionnaires were administered, and the ratio of believers still reached 50 percent, far above the national average at the time. As Pilkington explained, the then-anonymous lecturer at the University of Denver turned out to be Silas Newton.

Nothing Up Their Sleeves
"What do you mean, Admiral, on page 6 of your testimony when you mention projects using magician's art? How do magicians get into the spook business?"
- Senator Richard S. Schweiker to Adm. Stansfield Turner, Director of Central Intelligence, 1977 Senate Hearing on MKULTRA     

As sincere and thorough explorations of the topic of UFOs bleed into human rights issues, so do comprehensive examinations of human rights abuses lead researchers into the UFO genre. This is very apparent in the work of Hank Albarelli, Jr., A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA's Secret Cold War Experiments.

Magician and CIA man John Mulholland
Albarelli wrote how in 1956 and again in 1957, CIA Technical Services Staff chief and MKULTRA point man Sidney Gottlieb asked magician John Mulholland to examine and render an opinion on UFO sightings (A Terrible Mistake, p265). Agency consultant Mulholland previously composed a 71-page CIA manual in 1953 titled, Some Operational Applications of the Art of Deception. He also wrote the Agency manual, Recognition Signals, according to the CIA. Gottlieb specifically asked Mulholland to discreetly investigate the now famous 1955 UFO incident occurring at the Sutton family farm near Kelly, KY, among other cases. 

"Unfortunately," Albarelli explained, "there are no known documents that reveal Mulholland's investigation, findings or any report by him on the Kentucky incident."

Albarelli continued that, when asked about the case, Gottlieb stated he could not remember ever hearing anything about it. Some readers will recall Gottlieb's selectively poor memory as demonstrated during Congressional hearings of the 1970's. Gottlieb repeatedly claimed he was unable to recall details and often basic aspects of various MKULTRA subprojects, including personnel and what even took place within some of the projects. 

In 1957 more reported UFO events apparently attracted CIA interest. Among them were the November 2-3 sightings of Levelland, TX. According to Albarelli, magician Mulholland visited the area in the weeks following the incident.

"Clearly there is far more research to be accomplished to understand the full extent of Mulholland's work for the CIA," Albarelli concluded, "as well as the CIA's venture into the paranormal realm."

All Aboard

Former CIA director and NICAP
board member Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter
The same year, 1957, the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) assembled a board of experienced CIA officers, or the CIA assembled a board of UFO enthusiasts, depending on how ya wanna look at it. According to the late researcher Richard Hall, the NICAP Board of Governors in 1957 consisted of 16 members and notably included Vice Adm. Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, USN (Ret.), a former director of the CIA; Maj. Dewey Fournet, Jr., USAFR, a "former Pentagon Monitor of Air Force UFO project"; and Col. Joseph Bryan III, USAF (Ret.), who was "later discovered to be a former naval officer and CIA employee, psychological warfare specialist."

Four years prior, a now publicly available report issued by the covertly CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel referenced a presentation given to the Panel by the above mentioned Maj. Dewey Fournet, Jr., destined to become a board member of NICAP. The Robertson Panel 1953 joint statements consisted of concerns about possible propaganda efforts conducted by hostile states, including Russia. It was particularly noted:
The Panel took cognizance of the existence of such groups as the "Civilian Flying Saucer Investigators" (Los Angeles) and the "Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (Wisconsin). It was believed that such organizations should be watched because of their potentially great influence on mass thinking if widespread sightings should occur. The apparent irresponsibility and the possible use of such groups for subversive purposes should be kept in mind.

As we transition back to 1957, please consider, as reported by Mark Pilkington in Mirage Men, a Dr. Olavo Fontes developed an interest in UFOs and joined the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization recommended to "be watched." Dr. Fontes indeed had a date with UFO destiny, and it revolved around events leading up to the case of Antonio Villas Boas. The work of such researchers as Pilkington and Redfern on the topic is definitely thought provocative and worth some time (see Redfern's Contactees and various blog contributions).

The Villas Boas incident occurred on a farm in Brazil the evening of October 16, 1957. As many readers are certainly aware, the farmer was plowing with a tractor when a dramatic story unfolded of a flying object, strange beings, and what he claimed to interpret as him having sex with a creature resembling a human female.

Antonio Villas Boas
If we are to give the late Villas Boas the benefit of the doubt and hypothetically accept his claims as sincere, at least as he recalled the events, a number of intriguing aspects of the story arguably suggest a more nefarious, earth-bound explanation than one from the heavens above. Those aspects include:

- Villas Boas and his brother reportedly witnessed an unusual light flying about the sky two nights prior to the now famous encounter.

- Villas Boas became physically ill for weeks following the event, reportedly including symptoms of nausea, eye irritation, and lesions.

- Unethical experimentation was conclusively conducted by the intelligence community during the era, and included testing the effects of both drugs and radiation on involuntary human research subjects.

- The young man reportedly found the battery wires unscrewed on his tractor after the encounter, seemingly lengthening the amount of time it would take him to reach others. 

And then there was the Rich Reynolds story. Pilkington, Redfern and others wrote about how UFO blogger Reynolds explained that Bosco Nedelcovic told him in 1978 that the Villas Boas event was perpetrated by the CIA. The now deceased Nedelcovic was apparently employed by the Agency in Latin America during the time in question. The CIA, according to statements attributed to Nedelcovic, staged UFO events all over the world, and he essentially claimed to be present with a psy ops team during the Villas Boas incident. 
The gist of the story involved an alleged psychological warfare operation consisting of a helicopter, a qualified crew, and powerful drugs administered via aerosol and/or airborne delivery systems. 

While we would be wise in exercising caution before fully accepting such stories without conclusive verification, the point is still valid that it's intriguing that Nedelcovic's apparent claim, as related by Reynolds, was ever made at all; such events as the Villas Boas incident tend to draw a host of people and statements that stir the pot. That's the case whether it's done intentionally by the intelligence community, individuals acting alone for what might be a variety of reasons, or other demographics - which brings us back to Olavo Fontes, a medical doctor. 

In what Pilkington referred to in Mirage Men as "Maury Island, Brazilian Style," Dr. Fontes read a newspaper column in September of 1957 about a fragment of material allegedly from a UFO. Strikingly similar to the Maury Island case of 1947, a witness claimed to have seen a "flying disc" while fishing and subsequently retrieved some associated metallic material from the water. Fontes seemed to find the circumstances fascinating, as he made arrangements to have the material tested at the National Department of Mineral Production in Brazil's Agricultural Ministry. Samples were also sent to the U.S. Air Force through the American Embassy. Nothing conclusively significant came of the tests. The samples were mostly magnesium, but the case reportedly brought significant public attention to Dr. Fontes and his investigation.

In early 1958 Fontes met Antonio Villas Boas. Just a matter of days afterward, in February of the same year, according to Pilkington, Fontes was visited by two Brazilian Naval Ministry intelligence officers. They reportedly claimed to want to discuss the samples of alleged flying saucer material. 

The intelligence officers proceeded to warn Fontes to stay out of matters that did not concern him, and went as far as to rather incredibly explain that the world's governments were aware of the extraterrestrial presence - and they wanted to keep a lid on it. Some of the information could not even be shared with the Brazilian president, they reportedly stated.

The retrieval of crashed saucers was apparently discussed, including the mention of one from Scandinavia. In his accompanying footnotes, Pilkington particularly considered the possibility the reference by the officers to a saucer retrieval from Scandinavia could have been related to the Spitsbergen misinformation story. I would agree that is a potentially interesting correlation, all circumstances considered. Was it a case of the Spitsbergen story being applicably implemented as an appropriate tool for the job at hand?

Regardless, Dr. Fontes indeed descended into the UFO community, gained some notoriety, mingled with government agencies, and was subsequently approached by intelligence officers who relayed supposedly classified information under the remarkable guise of keeping it quiet. Pilkington wrote:
Fontes was left puzzled but unbowed by the visit. He may even have asked the same questions that we should: why, if the UFO matter was so secret that even the president couldn’t be told, had so many of the Navy men's revelations already been printed in popular books and magazines? And why were they telling Fontes, who immediately shared the information with Coral and Jim Lorenzen, APRO’s directors, confirming similar rumours that they had heard form other sources? Was it because somebody wanted Fontes and APRO to believe these tales, and to share them, in the same way that Silas Newton had been encouraged to keep spreading his crashed saucer stories back in 1950?

A Terrible Mistake

Author Hank Albarelli, Jr. extensively explored the case of Frank Olson and Cold War unethical chemical experimentation conducted on human beings in his book, A Terrible Mistake. Olson, a bacteriologist and biological warfare scientist, worked in a chemical division of Camp Detrick, delving deeply into such experimentation. He died a controversial death in 1953, nine days after he was covertly dosed with LSD by Sidney Gottlieb.

Frank Olson
Albarelli became convinced Olson was murdered by the CIA. Reasons include Olson's possible involvement in the infamous 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit incident. Albarelli quite interestingly documented Olson and other Camp Detrick scientists were in France at the time of the tragedy (A Terrible Mistake, p357), among other items of note. A summary of Albarelli's work may be read in his 2010 blog post, CIA: What Really Happened in the Quiet French Village of Pont-Saint-Esprit.  

A Terrible Mistake contains a substantial amount of intriguing information, and some of it is of potential significance to UFO researchers. The famous Pascagoula alleged encounter is referenced, among other UFO cases, and numerous formerly classified projects which may be relevant are addressed.

Albarelli reported in his 2009 book that over the course of a decade he was contacted by various people sharing theories that Frank Olson was killed due to his knowledge of UFOs and aliens. The government did not want the knowledge revealed, it was suggested to the writer. Albarelli explained at least one such story included particular mention of UFO crash sites.

"One person, who seemed quite knowledgeable about Camp Detrick," Albarelli wrote (A Terrible Mistake, p700), "claimed that 'definitive evidence proving alien contact with Earth' had been removed from UFO crash or landing sites by the government. This evidence was allegedly transported for study to Camp Detrick and other military installations. That several of the key CIA and Army participants in Olson's death were involved in the government's UFO research in the 1950's is certainly interesting."

Had he not become convinced Olson's death involved other reasons, Albarelli continued, "some of these theories may have been much more provocative." The dynamics become complicated and the stories may very well contain varying shades of truth and fiction. However, the fact remains Albarelli was questionably encouraged to aim his lines of research in the direction of likely nonexistent crashed saucers, as has apparently now befallen researchers for decades. The fact also remains, as Albarelli observed, select Agency personnel have indeed perpetually been active in projects consisting of - at best - unclear objectives while the individuals simultaneously maintain influence in the UFO community. The implications are both intriguing and concerning.

21st Century Paper UFOs

As suggested by Albarelli, promoting stories of crashed UFOs is by no means limited to distant yesteryear. That is the case whether or not the promoters are affiliated with the IC, and the dynamics remain relevant to both the UFO community and our culture at large from any number of perspectives.

In 2013 I published an article, Casselberry July 4 Case: Anatomy of a UFO Rumor. It explored an alleged 2004 crash in the Orlando suburb of Casselberry. The story received significant attention in the Central Florida UFO community. Everybody, it seemed, knew somebody - or knew somebody that knew somebody - who was a key witness to the event.

Closer scrutiny, however, revealed that not only was there no compelling reason to think anything of unusual origin fell to earth, but there was no evidence any airborne craft was involved at all. Quite the opposite, actually.

Image of Texas meteor misrepresented as Florida UFO
In the aftermath of the alleged event that 2004 summer, several dramatic reports were filed to UFO organizations, containing completely unsubstantiated claims of a crash site secured by government agencies. Residents were allegedly falling ill. One report went as far as including a photo, represented as an alien spacecraft crashing to earth in Casselberry, which proved to actually have been a shot taken in Texas of a meteor. The extent the story was cultivated was rather extraordinary in itself. 

Further complicating matters, I interacted with a number of Central Florida residents who I feel were completely sincere about their perceptions surrounding the event. Many locals indeed believe something extremely unusual took place, and some of them seem to believe other residents witnessed much more than they, but attempts to locate and interview such other residents were repeatedly unsuccessful. I was unable to find any individuals who claimed to have seen a flying object or observe activity allegedly taking place around a crash site, although reports containing such claims were easy to find on UFO websites. Notably, such reports consistently omitted a physical address or detailed description of an alleged crash site. Photos of the site and its alleged accompanying government agents were also noticeably absent. Nonetheless, the unsubstantiated claims seemed to significantly increase the certainty among UFO enthusiasts that their suspicions of an orchestrated cover-up were justified.

The story grew at least in part out of a jarring sound, possibly a rather enormous thunder clap following a flash of lightning. The approximately 25-second long rumble was captured on video by YouTube user chetty mo.

FOIA requests filed to multiple agencies offered no info to corroborate the beliefs of UFO enthusiasts or the sensational claims posted at UFO websites. The Casselberry Police Department provided a copy of a report filed the evening in question. It substantiates a loud noise occurred which set off alarms and prompted calls from concerned residents, but in no way validates a UFO crash story. 

The weather service, airports and similar sources revealed nothing of interest, and went as far as clarifying nothing out of the ordinary was detected by radar in the skies over Casselberry that night. There was simply no verifiable reason to suspect anything particularly extraordinary occurred, outside the manners the story influenced public perception and resulting beliefs. 

Two years after the Casselberry event, in 2006, the "Great Lakes Dive Company," or GLDC, joined the steeplechase. The GLDC created a stir in the UFO community when it claimed to have found a USAF F-89C Scorpion that disappeared in 1953 over Lake Superior while pursuing a UFO. GLDC doubled down, adding that a mystery object was resting a couple hundred feet or so from the aircraft at the bottom of the lake. James Carrion and Frank Warren were among researchers who went about investigating the remarkable claims. 

Carrion wrote how efforts to authenticate the existence of GLDC suggested its alleged spokesperson, Adam Jimenez, was less than forthright. Attempts to find public records on the company - or people who knew anything about it - also hit dead ends, as did efforts to validate alleged sonar images offered as evidence of the claims.

Continuing investigation revealed suspicious aspects of the GLDC website. Also revealed was an alleged Associated Press article posted at UFO UpDates List that was in all likelihood never composed by the AP at all. In the end, the nonexistent Great Lakes Dive Company receded back into a ufology void from whence it came, and "Adam Jimenez" ceased responding to emails or phone calls.

What I think all of this means to the average and sincere member of the UFO community is the extreme importance of forming beliefs wisely. The UFO topic has clearly been manipulated by a variety of demographics for a number of purposes from the 1940's forward. The opportunities continue to appear ripe for the picking, including use of the saucer crash meme. To fail to understand this is to fail to have a working knowledge of how lines of research and resulting UFO-related beliefs have often been built upon faulty premises in the first place. The antidote to ignorance is knowledge, and dedication to truth and accuracy must surely be on the path to unmasking mysteries of the universe, shedding light on exploitation perpetrated upon the UFO community, and more clearly understanding ways it all overlaps.   

Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Crashed Saucer Misinformation

Time recently spent in Roswell gave me the opportunity to talk UFOs with some people quite knowledgeable on the topic. Among them was Nick Redfern. Aware of my interest in the overlapping of the UFO and intelligence communities, Nick shared his thoughts on several such cases. This included an alleged saucer crash supposedly occurring in 1952 on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen. 

Nick blogged about the Spitsbergen case in 2012, explaining how it consisted of a few different tellings, depending on which intel agency or news publication one chose to consult. Basically, a story was passed around that a flying saucer (with no occupants) was retrieved from the island. As late as 1985 researchers were still trying to substantiate the story, which had grown to include comparisons to flying disks allegedly seen by military personnel around the Arctic. The origin of the alleged Spitsbergen saucer was suggested to be both Russian and outer space at different times, and the case was called both a hoax and a matter of utmost importance, depending on the agency and era. 

The part of the story Nick found most intriguing involves a file at the NSA. It's titled, Department of State AIRGRAM - Subject: Flying Saucers Are a Myth

The file contains a 1968 airgram message from the American embassy in Moscow to the U.S. Department of State. The purpose of the message is to provide the State Department with an English version of a then-recently published article debunking UFOs and authored by Villen Lyustiberg, Science Editor of the Novosti Press Agency.

Lyustiberg's piece contains a paragraph addressing the Spitsbergen case. The paragraph has been circled and identified as a "plant," presumably by someone employed at an American intelligence agency at some point in time.

Intriguing notation added to Russian article on UFOs and contained in NSA doc


Author David Clarke addressed the alleged Spitsbergen saucer in his nonfiction
book, How UFOs Conquered the World: The History of a Modern Myth. He described the above document as shared with him by Nick Redfern, and went on to explain the work of Bill Spaulding of the U.S. group Ground Saucer Watch.

Following intensive FOIA work, Spaulding apparently came to believe that crashed saucer lore was actually promoted and in some cases deliberately fabricated by the U.S. government. Clarke reported that Spaulding found no evidence the CIA had any knowledge of such crashed saucers, but the Agency indeed considered advantageous uses of spreading belief in UFOs for psychological warfare purposes. As Clarke wrote, "One [CIA] memo put it this way: 'A fair proportion of our population is mentally conditioned to the acceptance of the incredible. In this fact lies the potential for touching-off of mass hysteria and panic.'"

In 1990 Clarke obtained comment from Spaulding on such documents, to which Spaulding explained in part, "There are some good official UFO documents. But they do not show the existence of saucers as spaceships. Rather, they show a deliberate trail of misinformation about saucers, a ruse to cover-up high tech testing." 

We might give such circumstances deeper consideration when contemplating stories of alleged downed alien spacecraft. We might also consider the perspective promoted by Science Editor Lyustiberg, some 50 years ago, was to discourage belief in flying saucers among the Russian public. It does not go unnoticed by this writer that the author of the above referenced airgram pointed out to the State Department that Lyustiberg's position was in contradiction to other Russian publications; the embassy employee briefly summarized Russian stances on UFOs for the recipient at State before attaching Lyustiberg's article. 

It should be a forgone conclusion at this point that the UFO topic was exploited by the global intelligence community for a variety of purposes from one operation and era to the next. The consequences might indeed be significant and far-reaching.

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Casselberry July 4 Case: Anatomy of a UFO Rumor

Jack Brewer
Originally published July 1, 2013

UFO that wasn't: Police dashcam image of meteor in Texas
was submitted to NUFORC as Florida UFO
Residents of greater Orlando were trying to celebrate in spite of the rain on July 4 in 2004. As dark fell, something unusual took place. Exactly what it was continues to be debated nine years later.

Some said it was a crash of a UFO in the suburb of Casselberry, and that NASA orchestrated a cover up. Others suspected it may have been some kind of unusual weather or atmospheric phenomena, possibly involving a meteor of some type. Yet others scoffed, suggesting it was nothing more than lightning and a strong clap of thunder.

I made an attempt to piece together what happened, or, at the least, to accurately separate verifiable information from unsubstantiated rumors. Following is what was discovered.

July 4, 2004

Casselberry residents and those of neighboring communities reported that as 9 p.m. approached on July 4, 2004, a very bright light momentarily filled the sky. The flash was followed by a shockingly loud and long rumble. Witnesses recently informed me that the event briefly lit the night as if it were day. Others claimed to have been knocked from their feet by the force of the impact.

Back in July of 2004, locals expressed suspicions that some type of meteor may have exploded or crashed that holiday evening. However, officials and police officers stated there was no particular reason to think that was the case. Fireworks were ruled out due to such factors as the large, several mile area effected by the occurrence, as well as a lack of corroborating circumstances such as reported explosions or fires.

Extraordinary reports began to surface. Stories quickly spread that witnesses saw some kind of object falling or crashing to earth. Others said they knew of a secured apparent crash site where onlookers were quickly ordered to leave. In more extreme cases, stories included claims that vehicles with NASA logos were seen racing about Casselberry, government personnel acted in threatening manners and residents became ill, all apparently having something to do with an alleged crashed UFO. A local radio station aired accounts that added to public concerns, and activities of station staff continue today to be cited as evidence among those who believe something otherworldly plummeted to earth that rainy summer night in 2004.


Archived weather observations were obtained in March from the National Weather Service. Readings conducted at surrounding airports on July 4, 2004, from 8-10 p.m. indicated thunderstorms with over an inch of rainfall.

I obtained a copy of a report on March 13 from what was the extremely cooperative and helpful Casselberry Police Department. A “suspicious incident report” filed July 4, 2004 at 9:37 p.m. by Officer Michael P. Mulderig stated:
“At approx 2050hrs a large flash was seen outside the front windows of the [police] station, then a large boom was heard and the bldg vibrated. Subsequently numerous calls from Summerset, Camelot, Sunset Oaks, Duck Pond and other areas came in saying there was a large boom and shaking of windows. Also, we rec'd several busn alarms at the same time as the other calls, possibly related due to the rattling of glass pains that would be caused by such a large concussion. Unk where it came from or if it was just an incredibly large thunder clap.”
Obviously, something happened, whatever it may have been. Reasonable questions would include how and why it was put in the context of a UFO crash, and by whom. Answers to such questions were found, at least in part, on UFO websites and discussion forums. 

UFO Websites

A report was submitted July 12, 2004, to the Mutual UFO Network by an individual who stated they lived in Casselberry. They described residents suffering from illness and suggested that fantastic accounts were aired on the radio. It was claimed in the report that NASA “quieted the town and the radio station involved.” The individual noted that although they did not witness the event, “it is on a thread at another site.”

A number of related reports were submitted during the same time frame to the National UFO Reporting Center, or NUFORC, directed by Peter Davenport. One report stated that NASA vehicles were “everywhere,” and that the FBI was present following what the witness described as an “explosion.” The witness also referenced what were apparently rather popular radio reports of such alleged goings ons.

Another report submitted to NUFORC explained that the witness and their companions “felt it when it hit the ground.” The witness added in the report, “All the kids in the neighborhood said they saw a fireball fall from the sky.”

Yet another NUFORC report suggested a “craft” had been downed. The report contained a link to a photo allegedly retrieved from a police dashboard cam, but the link no longer functions.

A thread on the UFO Casebook forum contained discussion of the Casselberry circumstances. In reply number four of the thread, moderator and researcher DrDil helpfully posted some NUFORC reports, including the one referencing a downed “craft.” At the time DrDil made the post, which was Jan. of 2009, he could apparently access the linked dashboard cam photo and seemed to have posted it.

The photo appeared to contain a meteor-like fireball, even though the individual who submitted the report seemed to suggest it was a craft going down in Casselberry. The work of DrDil to apparently post the report in its entirety, including the photo, would later prove key.

The same UFO Casebook thread contained posts suggesting the crash site was located in an area previously under construction and now known as Legacy Park. That correlated with other accounts suggesting the general vicinity of the alleged impact was near the intersection of Hwy. 17/92 and Dog Track Rd., as is Legacy Park, but descriptions of alleged crash sites varied from one report and website to the next. The online descriptions of alleged crash sites were typically quite noticeably absent of what should have been easy to include details of an exact location.

An individual using the screen name chetty mo posted a video, allegedly capturing the event to some extent, on YouTube. Chetty mo stated the video was taken in Casselberry during the time in question. Some found the video less than convincing of anything more than lightning, while chetty mo and some others expressed disagreement during a discussion on UFO Casebook.

Virtually across the board, witnesses rejected explanations related to lightning. They commonly offered accounts of bright light, jarring impacts and frightening rumbling sounds, very much as described by Officer Mulderig, but remained convinced they had not witnessed lightning – at least not as they had ever seen before. A very strange sky was also described by an individual.

Browsing online reports and Internet forums might have led one to suspect something – even if it was a meteor - fell from the sky that Fourth of July in Casselberry. One might have even felt justified in suspecting some were aware of the site of the impact or crash. A bit closer review, however, might have raised quite different suspicions.

Lack of Primary Witnesses

I was unable to directly locate a single witness claiming to have actually seen anything specific in the sky, such as a meteor, fireball or what might have been interpreted as, by definition, a UFO, that July night in 2004. Neither was a single witness located who claimed to have personally observed anything as reportedly took place at an alleged crash site during the days following the incident.

Locals were consulted, people who reside in the specific area in question were contacted and requests for contact with witnesses were posted online, but no one emerged claiming to be a direct witness of events as described in the extraordinary reports submitted to MUFON and NUFORC. Facebook and Peter Davenport's access to the NUFORC reports were additionally tapped in the search for alleged witnesses of significant circumstances, but to no avail. While it is not being claimed that all resources were completely exhausted, it was indeed deemed reasonably apparent that the alleged abundance of witnesses to extraordinary occurrences simply did not exist, at least not to the extents implied in the online reports and typically suggested by people choosing to believe a UFO crashed.

Many secondary witnesses, or people who observed the flash and aftermath, were easily locatable and claimed to know someone who was a primary witness, or know someone that knew a primary witness, but not a single attempt was successful to coordinate direct contact with any such individual. As a result, no photos, videos or even firsthand accounts were obtained from the time of July, 2004, of any alleged UFO, crash site, NASA vehicles, FBI agents dispersing crowds or similar such previously claimed situations or occurrences.

Mr. Davenport of NUFORC was very cooperative in corresponding about the Casselberry event and the reports submitted to his organization. His efforts were appreciated.

I requested comment on the Casselberry case from MUFON Executive Director David MacDonald, Director of Investigations Marie Malzahn, Florida State Director Morgan Beall and former Florida Chief Field Investigator Denise Stoner. Each were asked to comment on the status of any investigation conducted, any conclusion that may have been reached and any related information available for public release. Multiple requests were emailed to the MUFON personnel and no replies were received from any of the four.

Lack of Confirmation of Airborne Object

Freedom of Information Act requests were submitted to NASA, the Air Force, FBI and CIA. No documents were obtained concerning incidents occurring July 4, 2004, in the vicinity of Casselberry, Fla., or as described in the MUFON and NUFORC reports. No files of downed or retrieved aircraft, satellites or similar such objects were available for release, and no files were obtained concerning official personnel in the area during the 2004 Fourth of July holiday or following weeks.

An informal data inquiry was submitted in March to the Federal Aviation Administration. Information was requested that might be available concerning unusual airspace conditions and activity over Casselberry and the surrounding county from 8-10 p.m., July 4, 2004. Information was specifically requested as might relate to circumstances as described in a 2004 Orlando WESH-TV news report about the incident that was submitted with the inquiry. The FAA promptly replied that it had no information related to such an event. 

The NUFORC sighting report cataloged by DrDil on UFO Casebook forum that included the image of what looked like a meteor-like fireball, but was described in the report as a “craft” going down over Casselberry, actually turned out to be from a different night in a different city. The image that seemed to originate from a police dashboard cam and looked very much like a meteor blazing through the atmosphere was indeed both, just not in Casselberry. Further research revealed the photo was actually shot in a suburb of Dallas, Texas, on July 7, 2004, according to a 2004 Orlando Channel 6 News report that was located. Comparing the image, apparently from the report submitted to NUFORC claiming to be about the Casselberry incident, with the image reported by Channel 6 to have originated in Texas, left no doubt they were the same photo. The supposed Casselberry "craft" was actually a Texas meteor.

Given that discovery, nothing whatsoever more than hearsay remained supporting an alleged airborne object in the case, much less a downed UFO. There were no reports of plane crashes, relevant radar reports, photos, video or other such tangible items of evidence available to support the idea that some kind of flying object had been involved. There were not even anecdotal narratives from witnesses, at least not accessible witnesses. What's more, the lone photo seemed to have been completely misrepresented by the individual who submitted the report to NUFORC.


It would be rather unreasonable to support a conclusion involving a crashed UFO, given the narrow range of available evidence. Unusually intense lightning and thunder seems a likely candidate for a potential explanation for the flash and rumbling noise. Some type of meteor, possibly exploding in air, might also be a reasonable theory, pending further information. A definitive conclusion, however, is simply not currently available.

A UFO, its crash and the unsubstantiated claims of a cover up, preferable as they may be to some, simply cannot be accepted without significantly more supporting evidence. It would seem that, at best, judgment must be suspended in the event that much more convincing evidence of the extremely extraordinary might one day be revealed. There is simply not currently sufficient reason to suspect any such extreme circumstances occurred, but perhaps further information will one day suggest otherwise.

It might be deemed noteworthy that multiple reports initially submitted to MUFON and NUFORC suggested an abundance of primary witnesses, yet closer scrutiny was unable to reveal the whereabouts of any such witnesses or even if they ever so much as actually existed. It might also be noted that one such report was shown to apparently contain blatantly false and misleading information in the form of a photo from Texas. Perhaps the Casselberry alleged UFO crash, like many other cases, once again demonstrated that circumstances entirely different from those popularly discussed and commonly perceived are likely to be found when researchers drill down through the available information surrounding reported UFOs.

Perhaps the Casselberry July 4 case also serves as a reminder that interesting circumstances need not always be measured by a presence or absence of extraterrestrials. While such a measuring stick might be commonly used by both believers and non-believers within the UFO community, a more practical perspective might include understanding that limiting the significance of any given UFO report to whether or not aliens were involved makes one oblivious to a multitude of additional - and interesting - possibilities.

And what about those reports on the radio?

The much discussed radio reports revolved around talented and popular talk show host, Jason Bailey, known to local listeners as Buckethead. The Buckethead Show, dubbed the BS, currently airs afternoons on Real Radio 104.1.

Back in July of 2004, Mr. Bailey was employed by a different Orlando radio station and, as reported, seemingly demonstrated an interest in the Casselberry incident. His activities, according to Clyde Lewis of Ground Zero, included taking on-air telephone calls from self-described witnesses during the days following the incident. Lewis also wrote that Bailey had an intern who covered the unfolding events on location in Casselberry, resulting in the intern making some rather dramatic on-air claims about being ominously instructed to vacate a rumored crash site.

I contacted Bailey in April and offered him an opportunity to share his perspectives on the Casselberry chain of events. He was also offered an opportunity to comment on the legitimacy of the circumstances involving the intern.

“Thanks,” Mr. Bailey replied, “but I'm not interested.”

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Sources for Presentations at Roswell

I am pleased to be among the speakers at the Roswell UFO Festival. The conference where I will be speaking is organized by Guy Malone and titled, 70 Years Later: Modern Challenges to the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis.

I'll be doing a couple different presentations, one being The Greys Have Been Framed: Exploitation in Ufology and the Intersection of the Intelligence and UFO Communities. The other is MKULTRA to Gitmo: Correlations Between State Sponsored Involuntary Human Experimentation, Hypnosis and the UFO Community

There are certainly many different explanations for reported UFO phenomena and high strangeness, whatever those explanations may eventually prove to be, and I do not claim to know them all. I am not suggesting there is nothing necessarily of interest in all cases, anymore than I would suggest any given explanation or two would account for all reports. 

That stated, there are indeed many instances - readily available for citation - of exploitation of the topic of UFOs. I subsequently feel the methods employed by intelligence agencies and questionable researchers deserve attention in order to better understand how our opinions and beliefs developed. I will be exploring some of those instances, as well as situations and dynamics worthy of deeper consideration, in how they impact the UFO topic and alleged alien abduction genre. 

I advocate conducting such research in responsible manners: Accurately identify facts, then consider what the facts may indicate. I encourage differentiating between fact and opinion, as well as differentiating between scientific study and other forms of research and/or activities. 

Please allow me to emphasize I am not suggesting involuntary human experimentation necessarily accounts for any reports of alleged alien abduction. I do feel, however, some of the material deserves consideration in proper and responsible context. There are many possibilities of potential relevance.

For instance, we now conclusively know that experiments were conducted in which chemicals were covertly dispersed in public places. We also know that unwitting research subjects were led into situations in which they were drugged and observed. There are numerous ways such circumstances could become intertwined with the UFO popular narratives, particularly considering that - during the mid 20th century time in question - most U.S. citizens did not even remotely suspect their federal government was capable of abusing them. Such research subjects might struggle to find explanations for their experiences, and confuse the circumstances with those that became commonly reported within the UFO community. The possibilities are many.

Below are some key links to items addressed during my presentations, offered for those who would like sources and have a desire to read further. We will be discussing how such circumstances may, in some instances, affect public perception of UFOs. We will also explore correlations among some of the circumstances. Questions, comments, challenges to my points of view expressed during the presentations, and other inquiries may be emailed to me at the address located in my blogger profile.

Some may choose to read my book, The Greys Have Been Framed: Exploitation in the UFO Community. It explores the ways the UFO topic has been manipulated by multiple demographics for a variety of reasons. Some of these reasons, it should be noted, have nothing to do with UFOs, but influence the genre as byproducts of the pursuit of unrelated objectives. Additionally explored rather thoroughly in the book are the cases of Simone Mendez, Leah Haley and Emma Woods, among others.

UFOs and the IC

- James Carrion maintains the blog, Anachronism, where you can download his book of the same name for free. Topics explored between his book and blog include the Ghost Rocket phenomenon, the possible significance of Project Seal during the summer of '47, and a group of potentially relevant intelligence officers known as Joint Security Control. 

- A 1949 Project Grudge report references the UFO topic as a potential psychological propaganda and warfare tool, including the planned release of unusual aerial objects.

Iconic, archetypal shot from The Day the Earth Stood Still
- In his book Silver Screen Saucers: Sorting Fact from Fantasy in Hollywood's UFO Movies, author Robbie Graham documents ongoing CIA interest in the portrayal of ET in film. This includes propaganda specialists employed as a production chief and a script writer on the set of the 1951 film, The Day the Earth Stood Still

- The CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90, is available on the Agency website. It contains such info as CIA initially concealing sponsorship of the Robertson Panel, as well as concealing interest in use of the UFO controversy as a psychological warfare tool.

- A now declassified 1954 CIA telegram suggested to operatives in Guatemala to consider fabricating a story about flying saucers as an option to distract public attention from Agency involvement in a coup. This was reported in a 2003 New York Times article, The C.I.A.'s Cover Has Been Blown? Just Make Up Something About U.F.O.'s.

- CIA man Gene Poteat composed a report on the use of electronic countermeasures in his now declassified work, Stealth, Countermeasures, and ELINT, 1960-1975. Among items of potential interest to the UFO community include Poteat's description of the planned release of balloon-borne metalized spheres in coordination with the projection of false radar paints. 

Overlapping of the UFO and Intelligence Communities

- In his book The FBI-CIA-UFO Connection: The Hidden UFO Activities of USA Intelligence Agencies, author Bruce Maccabee, PhD, credited CIA man Ron Pandolfi with suggesting Agency interest in UFOs was for counterespionage purposes. Particularly, it was suggested, CIA obtained evidence in the 1970's that adversaries devised a plan to use U.S. citizens, including ufologists, to penetrate the U.S. defense program.

Investigation of Vincente DePaula is an article on a website maintained by Ron Regehr. It describes the reported interrogation by the Defense Investigative Service of the late Mr. DePaula, a former member of the UFO community who was employed in the defense industry to work on classified satellite systems. 

- Information about the 1980's Paul Bennewitz case - and the involvement of USAF Office of Special Investigations Special Agent Richard Doty - can be found in the work of Greg Bishop, Mark Pilkington and others. A 2014 Open Minds post by Alejandro Rojas documents his efforts to hold the evasive Air Force accountable for its role in the saga. The actions of Doty and the OSI might be considered in the context of the 1981 Simone Mendez case, to which I allocated a chapter in my book.

The late Boyd Bushman and a photo passed around his circles
- A 1999 FBI memo obtained by John Greenwald, Jr. of The Black Vault indicates the late Boyd B. Bushman was employed at Lockheed Martin and held Top Secret and SCI/SPA security clearances in his capacity as a Senior Specialist in the Special Programs Department. The memo further indicates Lockheed Martin harbored concerns of ongoing attempts to elicit classified information from Bushman. A 2014 video apparently shot by UFO enthusiasts showed Bushman explaining his interests in UFO and ET-related topics, which he described discussing throughout his career with a network of what he considered to be like-minded colleagues. The intriguing circumstances were explored in my blog post, Boyd Bushman, the FBI and Counterespionage

- The Carpenter Affair of the 1990's is covered in my book and rather extensively in a number of posts on my blog. It involved Missouri Social Worker, hypnotist, and MUFON Director of Abduction Research John Carpenter. He released data contained in the case files of 140 suspected alien abductees, including Leah Haley, without the knowledge or consent of the 140. They were hypnosis subjects of Carpenter, two of which he married. The data was provided to controversial philanthropist Robert Bigelow for review by him and his colleagues, which included Col. John Alexander, in exchange for a reported $14,000 paid to Carpenter. Stipulations of a 2001 five-year probation period eventually enforced upon the Social Worker license of Carpenter may be viewed via the State of Missouri public document, State Committee for Social Workers v. John S. Carpenter.

Millionaire searches for UFOs on ranch in Utah is a 1996 article published in the Eugene Register-Guard. It describes Robert Bigelow declining to be interviewed about Skinwalker Ranch, and Col. John Alexander, a Bigelow employee, explaining details will not be provided of how and why research is being conducted. 

- In 2011 James Carrion wrote he and an accompanying scientist were denied access to the Skinwalker Ranch, and Bigelow, during ill-fated dealings with MUFON, moved funds on behalf of what was described as an undisclosed financial sponsor. The identity of the sponsor was revealed only to John Schuessler, but not the rest of the MUFON board of directors.

- In 2012 I published an interview of CB Scott Jones, a retired career intelligence officer who, among other noteworthy items, stated to Austin MUFON that he believed his friend Michael Drosnin was targeted by the FBI with an incapacitating mind control device. Jones claimed during the 2012 interview he continued to believe the UFO subject is used to cloak classified U.S. programs, including mind control operations.

Maj. Gen. Albert N. Stubblebine III
- That same year, 2012, I delved into the activities of Maj. Gen. Bert Stubblebine and his wife Dr. Rima Laibow. Stubblebine is credited with developing Remote Viewing, and Laibow formerly spoke at UFO conferences as an advocate for using hypnosis with alleged alien abductees. In more recent years the couple has supported increasingly questionable conspiracy theories, up to claiming attempts were made on the life of Laibow in retaliation for their activism.

- Investigative journalist Sharon Weinberger published the article Mind Games in 2007 in Washington Post Magazine. It included an interview with Col. John Alexander, who suggested mind control projects were receiving renewed interest post-9/11, and that electronic neutering might prove beneficial on detainees such as held at Guantanamo Bay. 

"Maybe I can fix you, or electronically neuter you," Alexander was quoted by Weinberger, "so it's safe to release you into society, so you won't come back and kill me."  

Hypnosis and the UFO Community

- The American Psychology Association (APA) explains its stances on hypnosis as a therapeutic tool, not a memory retrieval technique. Further reading includes the work of experimental psychologist and renowned memory expert Dr. Elizabeth Loftus. Also relevant is the work of experimental psychologist Dr. Julia Shaw, among many others, who clarify it's not a matter of if memory is flawed, but how flawed, and that memory enhancing techniques are conclusively unreliable.

Barbara Lamb
- I exchanged emails in 2013 with hypnotist Barbara Lamb about her claim "ET-human hybrids are real and they are here." According to a MUFON promotional email containing the statement, Lamb hypnotically regressed hundreds of people, some of which, with her "help," discovered they were hybrids. During the email exchange, I urged Lamb to directly address if any objective third parties had conducted any kinds of analysis which would lend support to her repeated claims she knows people with ET DNA. She then stopped corresponding.

- In 2012 I interviewed David Jacobs, PhD (in history), a self-described investigator of alien abduction. His bizarre and often convoluted claims about alleged aliens and ET-human hybrids are described at length in my book. Further info can be found at the website of Emma Woods, including recordings of long distance international telephone hypnosis sessions Jacobs conducted with the woman. It is important to listen to the recordings if you desire to develop an informed opinion about investigative techniques used by Jacobs, the Woods case, and his claims of being an advocate of strict scientific and ethical research methodologies. The methods used do not support either his claims or fantastic conclusions.

Hypnosis and the Intelligence Community

The Search for the Manchurian Candidate by John Marks, circa 1979, remains a valuable resource on Project MKULTRA, mid 20th century behavior modification operations, what's known of the personnel involved, and what's known of the experiments using hypnosis, drugs and torture for a variety of stated purposes. Marks' book includes further reading on the activities of George H. Estabrooks, Milton Kline, Martin Orne and George Hunter White.

- A 1954 MKULTRA document titled Hypnotic Experimentation and Research described how a woman was successfully directed during hypnosis to fire a pistol at another female hypnosis subject, unaware the gun was not loaded. Researchers claimed the subjects reported no memories of the events taking place.

- A now declassified document titled SI and H Experimentation (25 September 1951) contains the claims of CIA researchers that they successfully administered post-hypnotic suggestions via telephone. The suggestions involved the experimental subject delivering a post-hypnotic code to a second subject, who executed detailed instructions while hiding what appeared to be a bomb in a public location. Researchers further claimed the subjects largely could not recall their participation in the experiment.

- The CIA online library contains the article, Hypnosis in Interrogation, approved for release in 1993. The Edward F. Deshere piece describes recommendations from hypnosis expert and MKULTRA consultant Martin Orne, which included the use of a "magic room," props, and pseudo-hypnosis shams in order to deceive detainees into thinking they were defenseless against advanced hypnosis techniques. 

- The 2015 Hoffman Report documented APA involvement in 21st century national security interrogations and collusion in conducting torture. The document references the possibility hypnosis was used during the interrogation of Petty Officer Daniel King as conducted by psychologist Michael Gelles. The report describes findings of an APA ethics committee liaison who described the actions of Gelles as "misleading," and added that Gelles could have offered King substantial help understanding how false memories can be established and solidified during interrogation. Further documented in the Hoffman Report was the presence of at least one other hypnosis expert as a relatively present day long time CIA consultant.  

Involuntary Human Experimentation

- The 2012 New Yorker article Operation Delirium offers insight into the madness of MKULTRA while depicting circumstances surrounding experiments conducted at Edgewood Arsenal during the mid 20th century.

- Intellipedia, an intelligence community resource, contained a now declassified entry on MKULTRA describing project objectives, abused citizens of note (which include Theodore Kaczynski, who became the infamous Unabomber), and numerous well-sourced items of interest.

Undated doc Albarelli suspected was sent to
Rockefeller Commission, directly referencing
several key aspects of Pont-Saint-Esprit incident
- Writer/researcher Hank Albarelli, Jr. summarizes in a 2010 blog post why he suspects the Pont-Saint-Esprit tragedy was a CIA weapons research and development project involving MKNAOMI personnel.

- My 2014 blog post Psy Ops and Mind Control: Then, Now and the UFO Community includes links to work by Albarelli, psychologist Dr. Jeffrey Kaye, journalist Jason Leopold and others. Aspects of Project Artichoke and their possible significance are considered.

Army Cold War Chemical Research Report is a 2017 blog post I did on a declassified 1976 Army Inspector General report addressing 25 years of chemical research, development, and testing on humans. The report correlates the existence of Special Purpose Teams deployed for use on "nonvolunteers" as described in the work of Albarelli and his references to Artichoke, as linked above.

- Dr. Jeffrey Kaye and Jason Leopold reported extensively on how 21st century CIA "enhanced interrogation techniques" as used at Guantanamo Bay constituted involuntary human experimentation. Such collaborations by Kaye and Leopold include a 2012 article based upon an inspector general report that explained CIA was administering powerful antipsychotic and other medications as treatment for conditions caused by the very interrogation techniques employed and continued. A 2010 article documented that Gitmo detainees were given five times the normal dosage of Methloquine, substantially increasing the likelihood of effects such as hallucinations and paranoid delusions. The drug belongs to a class known as quinolines, was explored as part of the MKULTRA program, and is sometimes used in much smaller doses to treat malaria, which the detainees did not have. Kaye is author of the book, Cover-up at Guantanamo: The NCIS Investigation into the "Suicides" of Mohammed Al Hanashi and Abdul Rahman Al Amri.

- Writer/researcher Joseph Hickman served in the 629th Military Intelligence Battalion at Guantanamo Bay. He described in an interview with Reader Supported News the failed process that created the Gitmo prisoner population, how human experimentation occurred, and how ideas implemented evolved out of MKULTRA. Hickman is writing extensively about his experience in the military, including his book, Murder at Camp Delta: A Staff Sergeant's Pursuit of the Truth About Guantanamo Bay.    

Camp X-Ray, Guantanamo Bay
- Research materials recommended for review include the Seton Hall Law Center paper, Guantanamo: America's Battle Lab, the now declassified Fay Report, the previously referenced Hoffman Report, and reports published by Physicians for Human Rights (PHR). Just days ago, PHR published Nuremburg Betrayed: Human Experimentation and the CIA Torture Program, concluding the CIA post-9/11 torture operations constituted unethical and experimental research on unwilling human subjects. PHR reported that torture techniques were designed and implemented by health professionals, who then collected data on torture's effects. The circumstances are described as "one of the gravest breaches of medical ethics by U.S. health personnel since the Nuremburg Code was developed."


- In 2008 a Kansas court issued the first-of-its-kind order of protection banning a man from electronically harassing a former business associate. James Walbert told the court he was threatened with "jolts of radiation," then later claimed to feel sensations of electric shocks, hear electronically generated tones, and hear ringing in his ears. Walbert's former associate was subsequently banned from using electronic means to harass him.

- In his 1985 book, The Body Electric, author Dr. Robert Becker explained how researchers at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research claimed to have successfully transmitted spoken words directly to the human brain via pulsed microwaves in 1973.

- In 2008 Sharon Weinberger reported the Army removed a page from its website depicting "voice to skull" devices. The non-lethal weapon was described as a neuroelectromagnetic device capable of sending sound into the skull of persons or animals.

Dennis Kucinich
- In 2013 an Emergency Defense Motion was filed at Guantanamo Bay on behalf of Bin al Shibh. The motion sought relief from sounds and vibrations directed at the detainee. 

- Psychiatrist Dr. Emily A. Keram evaluated Gitmo detainee Shaker Aamer in 2013. Keram quoted Aamer as claiming to believe some kind of electromagnetic or radiation weapons were directed at him. He described the effects as feeling in a trance and difficulty getting his body to move.

- Former presidential candidate and UFO witness Dennis Kucinich proposed for legislation the Space Preservation Act of 2001. The bill, which did not pass, sought to ban space-based and airborne weapons which used electromagnetic, radiation, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management or mind control.